The Battle of Lützen was one of the most important battles of the Thirty Years War. It took place on 16 November 1632, between an Imperial army under Albrecht von Wallenstein and a combined Swedish-German army led by Gustavus Adolphus. Generally viewed as a narrow Swedish victory, both sides suffered heavy casualties, and the battle is now chiefly remembered for the death of Gustavus.
The first part of the battle featured a series of frontal attacks by the Swedes, which nearly succeeded before being repulsed by a cavalry charge led by Pappenheim. While trying to reform his shattered infantry, Gustavus was killed in a skirmish with Imperial troops; despite this, his subordinates rallied their men and supported by close range artillery fire overran the Imperial centre just before nightfall. Wallenstein withdrew in good order but had to abandon his wounded, many of his guns and most of his supply train.
Despite the loss of their king, the Swedes continued the war under the direction of Axel Oxenstierna and together with their German allies formed the Heilbronn League in April 1633. Backed by French subsidies, the coalition defeated an Imperial army under von Gronsfeld at Oldendorf in July; Wallenstein's failure to support his colleague and rumours he was contemplating switching sides led to his removal and assassination by Imperial agents in February 1634.