The Battle of Lützen, fought on 16 November 1632, is considered one of the most important battles of the Thirty Years War. A combined Swedish-German army led by Gustavus Adolphus narrowly defeated an Imperial force under Albrecht von Wallenstein. Both sides suffered heavy casualties, while the dead included Gustavus.
The first part of the battle featured a series of frontal attacks by the Swedes, which nearly succeeded before being repulsed by a cavalry charge led by Pappenheim. While trying to reform his shattered infantry, Gustavus was killed in a skirmish with Imperial troops, but his subordinates rallied their men and supported by close range artillery fire overran the Imperial centre just before nightfall. Wallenstein withdrew in good order although he abandoned his wounded, many of his guns and most of his supply train.
Despite the loss of their king, the Swedes continued the war under the direction of Axel Oxenstierna and formed the Heilbronn League with their German allies in April 1633. Backed by French subsidies, the coalition defeated an Imperial army under von Gronsfeld at Oldendorf in July. Wallenstein's alleged failure to support his colleague and rumours he was contemplating switching sides led to his removal and assassination by Imperial agents in February 1634.