The Battle of Lützen took place on 16 November 1632 during the Thirty Years' War, between an Imperial force under Albrecht von Wallenstein and a combined Swedish-German army led by Gustavus Adolphus. Generally viewed as a narrow Swedish victory, both sides suffered heavy casualties and it is now chiefly remembered for the death of Gustavus.
The first part of the battle featured a series of frontal attacks by the Swedes on the Imperial positions, during the course of which Gustavus was killed. Despite this, his subordinates rallied their troops and supported by close range artillery fire over-ran the Imperial centre just before nightfall. Wallenstein withdrew in good order but had to abandon his wounded, many of his guns and most of his supply train.
Despite the loss of their king, the Swedes continued the war under the direction of Axel Oxenstierna and together with their German allies formed the Heilbronn League in April 1633. Backed by French subsidies, the coalition defeated an Imperial army under von Gronsfeld at Oldendorf in July; Wallenstein's refusal to support his colleague and rumours he was contemplating switching sides led to his removal and assassination by Imperial agents in February 1634.